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Plurinational State of Bolivia , named after Simon Bolivar, is a landlocked country in central South America. It is bordered by Brazil on the north and east, Paraguay and Argentina on the south, and Chile and Peru on the west.

Independence was proclaimed in 1809, but sixteen years of struggle followed before the establishment of the republic, named for Simon Bolivar, on August 6 , 1825 .


At 1,098,580  km² (424,135  mi² ), Bolivia is the world's 28th-largest country (after Ethiopia). Bolivia has been a landlocked nation since 1879, when it lost its coastal department of Littoral to Chile in the War of the Pacific . However, it does have access to the Atlantic via the Paraguay river.

An enormous diversity of ecological zones is represented within Bolivia 's territory. The western highlands of the country are situated in the Andes Mountains and include the Bolivian Altiplano . The eastern lowlands include large sections of Amazonian rainforests and Chaco .

The highest peak is Nevado Sajama at 6,542 meters (21,463  ft) located in the department of Oruro . Lake Titicaca is located on the border between Bolivia and Peru . The Salar de Uyuni , the world's largest salt flat , lies in the southwest corner of the country, in the department of Potosí .





Bolivia 's ethnic distribution is estimated to be 30% Quechua -speaking and 25% Aymara-speaking Amerindians. The largest of the approximately three-dozen native groups are the Quechuas (2.5 million), Aymara (2 million), then Chiquitano (180,000), and Guaraní (125,000).

So the full Amerindian population is at 55% and the remaining 30% is Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) and around 15% are whites. The white population consists mostly of criollos , which in turn consist of families of relatively unmixed Spanish ancestry, descended from the early Spanish colonists.

La Paz, the main city

La Paz is situated in the valley of the Choqueyapu River below a plateau with an altitude of 3,600 meters ( 11,811 feet ). At this elevation it is the highest administrative capital in the world. Atop the plateau is the city of El Alto , where the El Alto International Airport is located (elev. 13,313 ft .) ( 4,058 meters ). Transportation links between the two cities have improved in recent years. The city is located at 16°30' South, 68°8' West (-16.5, -68.1333). Its name is translated into English as "Our Lady of Peace"

La Paz is renowned for its unique markets, very unusual topography, and traditional culture.

Founded in 1548 by Alonso de Mendoza at the site of the Native American settlement called Chuquiago , the full name of the city was originally Nuestra Señora de La Paz (meaning Our Lady of Peace ). The name commemorated the restoration of peace following the insurrection of Gonzalo Pizarro and fellow conquistadors four years earlier against Basco Núñez Vela, the first viceroy of Peru . In 1825 , after the decisive victory of the republicans at Ayacucho over the Spanish army in the course of the South American Wars of Independence , the city's full name was changed to La Paz de Ayacucho (meaning The Peace of Ayacucho ).

In 1898 , La Paz was made the de facto seat of the national government, with Sucre remaining the nominal historical as well as judiciary capital. This change reflected the shift of the Bolivian economy away from the largely exhausted silver mines of Potosí to the exploitation of tin near Oruro, and resulting shifts in the distribution of economic and political power among various national elites .

La Paz is the highest capital city in the world. The air is so thin that a well-hit shot will travel several meters farther than at sea level.

Key facts

Area: 1,100,000 sq km (424,164 sq miles).

Population: 9.5 million (UN estimate 2007).

Population density: 8.4 per sq km.

Capital:  Constitutional : Sucre. Population: 288,290 (2007). Administrative: La Paz. Population: 839,900 (2007).

Government: Democratic republic. Gained independence from Spain in 1825.

Head of state: President Evo Morales since January 2006.

Electricity: 110 and 220 volts AC, 50Hz. European two-pin (circular) plugs or US-style, two-pin (perpendicular flat) plugs.




Disease of altitude: mountain sickness, Sorojchi 

The clinical pictures which had several to the reduction of the pressure of oxygen in high altitude in the human being to 5.550 m .a.s.l (18.204 ft) the partial oxygen pressure diminishes to half, equal number of diminution of the oxygenation, 20% of the people who ascend over the 2.500 m .a.s.l (8.200 ft) in less of a day present/display some degree of altitude sickness...read more



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